Chemistry Chemical Bond|Types of bonds chemistry


Chemical Bond

Hello friends welcome to blog, Today we are going to discuss chemical bonding.Whenever word bond to hear it means  tie something together and chemical means that is irreversible by physical means.

                       


How are Chemical Bond Form and Defination


Normally,if atom does not complete its valance shell we call  atom is does not exist independently,To exist independently chemical Bond are formed by a force that hold together the different atoms in a molecule is called as chemical bond and number of valence electron(outermost electrons in a shell) participate decide the shape structure and characteristics of a molecule.

Atoms Form Bond To 

Atoms combine to form bond to achieve minimum energy and maximum stability. These are the two key factors that tells why atoms combine to form chemical bond.If atom does not have minimum energy then it will never have stability so bond is not possible.

How do Bond Form

Bond form with stability.Stability means atoms of different elements take part in chemical bond or bond formation in order to complete the octet (outermost shell)and have the electronic configuration of nearest noble gas atoms

Remember

The stability of noble gas elements is due to the presence of 8 electrons in the valence shell(except Helium has duplet) or due to the presence of complete octet.


How do Molecules Bond(Chemical Bond Form)

In the formation of molecule bond only the electrons present in outermost energy shell (valence shell of atom) normally participate while the electrons belong to inner  energy shell are mostly not involved in the Bond formation.we all know that except noble gas elements, the atoms of no other element exist independently. However, a group of atoms known as molecules have independent existence. The formation of chemical bond a molecule will only be formed if it is more stable and has lower energy then individual atoms.. Lewis introduced symbol to represent the valence electrons in the atoms. these are called as lewis symbol in which valence electrons are shown as dotted surrounding the symbol of an atom for example the symbol of carbon  is C while is symbol is

In the light of octet rule, Lewis and kossel have electronic theory of chemical bonding to represent dot structure.




Types of Chemical Bonding(Bond Types)

While talking about this chemical bonding.This question arises itself.

A.By Electron Transfer:- 

                  There is a transference of one or more electrons from one atom to other and the bond         formed is known as ionic or electrovalent bond.

B. By Electron Sharing :-

                  In this case combining atoms mutually contribute one.two,three electrons depending upon their requirement the bond formed is called as covalent bond.


C. Dative Bond:-



                    In some cases only one of the bonding atom contribute the electron pair while sharing is done by both called as co-ordinate Bond or dative Bond.

In addition to these in types of chemical bonding, the atoms of metal linked by metallic bond while inter molecular force of attraction arise hydrogen bonding and Van der waal forces for the formation of covalent bond.

The kind of force in chemical bonding decide the physical state, melting and boiling point, electric conductivity, solubility  and other factor influencing the formation of Chemical Bond.


Fact stated by Kossel in relation to chemical bonding

1. In a Periodic Table the higher electronegative element halogen (group number 17) and higher electropositive alkali metal (group number 1) are separated by a noble gas elements  placed on the extreme right in the periodic table .

2. The atoms of elements belongs to halogen family change to negative ion or anion by gain an electron. Similarly,alkali metals family change the positive a cation by lose an electron.

3.Both positive and negative ion acquire noble gas configuration i.e the achieved stable octet by completing its outermost shell

4. The negative and positive is  stabilized by the electrostatic force of attraction which is the experience.

Strongest chemical bond

Strong chemical bonds are the intramolecular forces which hold atoms together in molecules.Strongest chemical bond is sigma bond or Triple bond.


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